Reorder users and groups section above realms section.
[pve-docs.git] / pveum.adoc
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1ifdef::manvolnum[]
2PVE({manvolnum})
3================
38fd0958 4include::attributes.txt[]
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5
6NAME
7----
8
9pveum - Proxmox VE User Manager
10
11
12SYNOPSYS
13--------
14
15include::pveum.1-synopsis.adoc[]
16
17
18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
20endif::manvolnum[]
21
22ifndef::manvolnum[]
23User Management
24===============
38fd0958 25include::attributes.txt[]
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26endif::manvolnum[]
27
28// Copied from pve wiki: Revision as of 16:10, 27 October 2015
29
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30Proxmox VE supports multiple authentication sources, e.g. Linux PAM,
31an integrated Proxmox VE authentication server, LDAP, Microsoft Active
32Directory.
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33
34By using the role based user- and permission management for all
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35objects (VMs, storages, nodes, etc.) granular access can be defined.
36
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38Users
39-----
40
41{pve} stores user attributes in `/etc/pve/user.cfg`.
42Passwords are not stored here, users are instead associated with
43<<authentication-realms,authentication realms>> described below.
44Therefore a user is internally often identified by its name and
45realm in the form `<userid>@<realm>`.
46
47Each user entry in this file contains the following information:
48
49* First name
50* Last name
51* E-mail address
52* Group memberships
53* An optional Expiration date
54* A comment or note about this user
55* Whether this user is enabled or disabled
56* Optional two factor authentication keys
57
58
59System administrator
60~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
61
62The system's root user can always log in via the Linux PAM realm and is an
63unconfined administrator. This user cannot be deleted, but attributes can
64still be changed and system mails will be sent to the email address
65assigned to this user.
66
67
68Groups
69~~~~~~
70
71Each user can be member of several groups. Groups are the preferred
72way to organize access permissions. You should always grant permission
73to groups instead of using individual users. That way you will get a
74much shorter access control list which is easier to handle.
75
76
d6614202 77[[authentication-realms]]
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78Authentication Realms
79---------------------
80
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81As {pve} users are just counterparts for users existing on some external
82realm, the realms have to be configured in `/etc/pve/domains.cfg`.
83The following realms (authentication methods) are available:
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84
85Linux PAM standard authentication::
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86In this case a system user has to exist (eg. created via the `adduser`
87command) on all nodes the user is allowed to login, and the user
88authenticates with their usual system password.
89+
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90[source,bash]
91----
92useradd heinz
93passwd heinz
94groupadd watchman
95usermod -a -G watchman heinz
96----
97
98Proxmox VE authentication server::
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99This is a unix like password store (`/etc/pve/priv/shadow.cfg`).
100Password are encrypted using the SHA-256 hash method.
101This is the most convenient method for for small (or even medium)
102installations where users do not need access to anything outside of
103{pve}. In this case users are fully managed by {pve} and are able to
104change their own passwords via the GUI.
105
106LDAP::
107It is possible to authenticate users via an LDAP server (eq.
108openldap). The server and an optional fallback server can be
109configured and the connection can be encrypted via SSL.
110+
111Users are searched under a 'Base Domain Name' (`base_dn`), with the
112user name found in the attribute specified in the 'User Attribute Name'
113(`user_attr`) field.
114+
115For instance, if a user is represented via the
116following ldif dataset:
117+
118----
119# user1 of People at ldap-test.com
120dn: uid=user1,ou=People,dc=ldap-test,dc=com
121objectClass: top
122objectClass: person
123objectClass: organizationalPerson
124objectClass: inetOrgPerson
125uid: user1
126cn: Test User 1
127sn: Testers
128description: This is the first test user.
129----
130+
131The 'Base Domain Name' would be `ou=People,dc=ldap-test,dc=com` and the user
132attribute would be `uid`.
133+
134If {pve} needs to authenticate (bind) to the ldap server before being
135able to query and authenticate users, a bind domain name can be
136configured via the `bind_dn` property in `/etc/pve/domains.cfg`. Its
137password then has to be stored in `/etc/pve/priv/ldap/<realmname>.pw`
138(eg. `/etc/pve/priv/ldap/my-ldap.pw`). This file should contain a
139single line containing the raw password.
140
141Microsoft Active Directory::
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143A server and authentication domain need to be specified. Like with
144ldap an optional fallback server, optional port, and SSL
145encryption can be configured.
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148Two factor authentication
149-------------------------
150
151Each realm can optionally be secured additionally by two factor
152authentication. This can be done by selecting one of the available methods
153via the 'TFA' dropdown box when adding or editing an Authentication Realm.
154When a realm has TFA enabled it becomes a requirement and only users with
155configured TFA will be able to login.
156
157Currently there are two methods available:
158
159Time based OATH (TOTP)::
160This uses the standard HMAC-SHA1 algorithm where the current time is hashed
161with the user's configured key. The time step and password length
162parameters are configured.
163+
164A user can have multiple keys configured (separated by spaces), and the
165keys can be specified in Base32 (RFC3548) or hexadecimal notation.
166+
167{pve} provides a key generation tool (`oathkeygen`) which prints out a
168random key in Base32 notation which can be used directly with various OTP
169tools, such as the `oathtool` command line tool, the Google authenticator
170or FreeOTP Android apps.
171
172YubiKey OTP::
173For authenticating via a YubiKey a Yubico API ID, API KEY and validation
174server URL must be configured, and users must have a YubiKey available. In
175order to get the key ID from a YubiKey, you can trigger the YubiKey once
176after connecting it to USB and copy the first 12 characters of the typed
177password into the user's 'Key IDs' field.
178+
179Please refer to the
180https://developers.yubico.com/OTP/[YubiKey OTP] documentation for how to use the
181https://www.yubico.com/products/services-software/yubicloud/[YubiCloud] or
182https://developers.yubico.com/Software_Projects/YubiKey_OTP/YubiCloud_Validation_Servers/[
183host your own verification server].
184
185
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186Terms and Definitions
187---------------------
188
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190Objects and Paths
191~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
192
193Access permissions are assigned to objects, such as a virtual machines
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194(`/vms/{vmid}`) or a storage (`/storage/{storeid}`) or a pool of
195resources (`/pool/{poolname}`). We use file system like paths to
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196address those objects. Those paths form a natural tree, and
197permissions can be inherited down that hierarchy.
198
5eba0743 199
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200Privileges
201~~~~~~~~~~
202
203A privilege is the right to perform a specific action. To simplify
204management, lists of privileges are grouped into roles, which can then
205be uses to set permissions.
206
207We currently use the following privileges:
208
209Node / System related privileges::
210
211* `Permissions.Modify`: modify access permissions
212* `Sys.PowerMgmt`: Node power management (start, stop, reset, shutdown, ...)
213* `Sys.Console`: console access to Node
214* `Sys.Syslog`: view Syslog
215* `Sys.Audit`: view node status/config
216* `Sys.Modify`: create/remove/modify node network parameters
217* `Group.Allocate`: create/remove/modify groups
218* `Pool.Allocate`: create/remove/modify a pool
219* `Realm.Allocate`: create/remove/modify authentication realms
220* `Realm.AllocateUser`: assign user to a realm
221* `User.Modify`: create/remove/modify user access and details.
222
223Virtual machine related privileges::
224
225* `VM.Allocate`: create/remove new VM to server inventory
226* `VM.Migrate`: migrate VM to alternate server on cluster
227* `VM.PowerMgmt`: power management (start, stop, reset, shutdown, ...)
228* `VM.Console`: console access to VM
229* `VM.Monitor`: access to VM monitor (kvm)
230* `VM.Backup`: backup/restore VMs
231* `VM.Audit`: view VM config
232* `VM.Clone`: clone/copy a VM
233* `VM.Config.Disk`: add/modify/delete Disks
234* `VM.Config.CDROM`: eject/change CDROM
235* `VM.Config.CPU`: modify CPU settings
236* `VM.Config.Memory`: modify Memory settings
237* `VM.Config.Network`: add/modify/delete Network devices
238* `VM.Config.HWType`: modify emulated HW type
239* `VM.Config.Options`: modify any other VM configuration
240* `VM.Snapshot`: create/remove VM snapshots
241
242Storage related privileges::
243
244* `Datastore.Allocate`: create/remove/modify a data store, delete volumes
245* `Datastore.AllocateSpace`: allocate space on a datastore
246* `Datastore.AllocateTemplate`: allocate/upload templates and iso images
247* `Datastore.Audit`: view/browse a datastore
248
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250Roles
251~~~~~
252
253A role is simply a list of privileges. Proxmox VE comes with a number
254of predefined roles which satisfies most needs.
255
256* `Administrator`: has all privileges
257* `NoAccess`: has no privileges (used to forbid access)
258* `PVEAdmin`: can do most things, but miss rights to modify system settings (`Sys.PowerMgmt`, `Sys.Modify`, `Realm.Allocate`).
259* `PVEAuditor`: read only access
260* `PVEDatastoreAdmin`: create and allocate backup space and templates
261* `PVEDatastoreUser`: allocate backup space and view storage
262* `PVEPoolAdmin`: allocate pools
263* `PVESysAdmin`: User ACLs, audit, system console and system logs
264* `PVETemplateUser`: view and clone templates
265* `PVEUserAdmin`: user administration
266* `PVEVMAdmin`: fully administer VMs
267* `PVEVMUser`: view, backup, config CDROM, VM console, VM power management
268
269You can see the whole set of predefined roles on the GUI.
270
271Adding new roles using the CLI:
272
273[source,bash]
274----
275pveum roleadd PVE_Power-only -privs "VM.PowerMgmt VM.Console"
276pveum roleadd Sys_Power-only -privs "Sys.PowerMgmt Sys.Console"
277----
278
279
280Permissions
281~~~~~~~~~~~
282
283Permissions are the way we control access to objects. In technical
284terms they are simply a triple containing `<path,user,role>`. This
285concept is also known as access control lists. Each permission
286specifies a subject (user or group) and a role (set of privileges) on
287a specific path.
288
289When a subject requests an action on an object, the framework looks up
290the roles assigned to that subject (using the object path). The set of
291roles defines the granted privileges.
292
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294Inheritance
295^^^^^^^^^^^
296
5eba0743 297As mentioned earlier, object paths form a file system like tree, and
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298permissions can be inherited down that tree (the propagate flag is set
299by default). We use the following inheritance rules:
300
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301* Permissions for individual users always replace group permissions.
302* Permissions for groups apply when the user is member of that group.
303* Permissions replace the ones inherited from an upper level.
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306Pools
307~~~~~
308
309Pools can be used to group a set of virtual machines and data
8c1189b6 310stores. You can then simply set permissions on pools (`/pool/{poolid}`),
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311which are inherited to all pool members. This is a great way simplify
312access control.
313
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314
315What permission do I need?
316~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
317
318The required API permissions are documented for each individual
319method, and can be found at http://pve.proxmox.com/pve-docs/api-viewer/
320
321The permissions are specified as a list which can be interpreted as a
322tree of logic and access-check functions:
323
324`["and", <subtests>...]` and `["or", <subtests>...]`::
325Each(`and`) or any(`or`) further element in the current list has to be true.
326
327`["perm", <path>, [ <privileges>... ], <options>...]`::
328The `path` is a templated parameter (see <<templated-paths,Objects and
329Paths>>). All (or , if the `any` option is used, any) of the listed
330privileges must be allowed on the specified path. If a `require-param`
331option is specified, then its specified parameter is required even if the
332API call's schema otherwise lists it as being optional.
333
334`["userid-group", [ <privileges>... ], <options>...]`::
335The callermust have any of the listed privileges on `/access/groups`. In
336addition there are two possible checks depending on whether the
337`groups_param` option is set:
338+
339* `groups_param` is set: The API call has a non-optional `groups` parameter
340and the caller must have any of the listed privileges on all of the listed
341groups.
342* `groups_param` is not set: The user passed via the `userid` parameter
343must exist and be part of a group on which the caller has any of the listed
344privileges (via the `/access/groups/<group>` path).
345
346`["userid-param", "self"]`::
347The value provided for the API call's `userid` parameter must refer to the
348user performing the action. (Usually in conjunction with `or`, to allow
349users to perform an action on themselves even if they don't have elevated
350privileges.)
351
352`["userid-param", "Realm.AllocateUser"]`::
353The user needs `Realm.AllocateUser` access to `/access/realm/<realm>`, with
354`<realm>` refering to the realm of the user passed via the `userid`
355parameter. Note that the user does not need to exist in order to be
356associated with a realm, since user IDs are passed in the form of
357`<username>@<realm>`.
358
359`["perm-modify", <path>]`::
360The `path` is a templated parameter (see <<templated-paths,Objects and
361Paths>>). The user needs either the `Permissions.Modify` privilege, or,
362depending on the path, the following privileges as a possible substitute:
363+
364* `/storage/...`: additionally requires 'Datastore.Allocate`
365* `/vms/...`: additionally requires 'VM.Allocate`
366* `/pool/...`: additionally requires 'Pool.Allocate`
367+
368If the path is empty, `Permission.Modify` on `/access` is required.
369
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370Command Line Tool
371-----------------
372
373Most users will simply use the GUI to manage users. But there is also
8c1189b6 374a full featured command line tool called `pveum` (short for ``**P**roxmox
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375**VE** **U**ser **M**anager''). Please note that all Proxmox VE command
376line tools are wrappers around the API, so you can also access those
377function through the REST API.
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378
379Here are some simple usage examples. To show help type:
380
381[source,bash]
382 pveum
383
384or (to show detailed help about a specific command)
385
386[source,bash]
387 pveum help useradd
388
389Create a new user:
390
391[source,bash]
392 pveum useradd testuser@pve -comment "Just a test"
393
394Set or Change the password (not all realms support that):
395
396[source,bash]
397 pveum passwd testuser@pve
398
399Disable a user:
400
401[source,bash]
402 pveum usermod testuser@pve -enable 0
403
404Create a new group:
405
406[source,bash]
407 pveum groupadd testgroup
408
409Create a new role:
410
411[source,bash]
412 pveum roleadd PVE_Power-only -privs "VM.PowerMgmt VM.Console"
413
414
415Real World Examples
416-------------------
417
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419Administrator Group
420~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
421
422One of the most wanted features was the ability to define a group of
5eba0743 423users with full administrator rights (without using the root account).
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424
425Define the group:
426
427[source,bash]
428 pveum groupadd admin -comment "System Administrators"
429
430Then add the permission:
431
432[source,bash]
433 pveum aclmod / -group admin -role Administrator
434
435You can finally add users to the new 'admin' group:
436
437[source,bash]
438 pveum usermod testuser@pve -group admin
439
440
441Auditors
442~~~~~~~~
443
444You can give read only access to users by assigning the `PVEAuditor`
445role to users or groups.
446
8c1189b6 447Example1: Allow user `joe@pve` to see everything
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448
449[source,bash]
450 pveum aclmod / -user joe@pve -role PVEAuditor
451
8c1189b6 452Example1: Allow user `joe@pve` to see all virtual machines
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453
454[source,bash]
455 pveum aclmod /vms -user joe@pve -role PVEAuditor
456
5eba0743 457
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458Delegate User Management
459~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
460
8c1189b6 461If you want to delegate user managenent to user `joe@pve` you can do
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462that with:
463
464[source,bash]
465 pveum aclmod /access -user joe@pve -role PVEUserAdmin
466
8c1189b6 467User `joe@pve` can now add and remove users, change passwords and
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468other user attributes. This is a very powerful role, and you most
469likely want to limit that to selected realms and groups. The following
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470example allows `joe@pve` to modify users within realm `pve` if they
471are members of group `customers`:
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472
473[source,bash]
474 pveum aclmod /access/realm/pve -user joe@pve -role PVEUserAdmin
475 pveum aclmod /access/groups/customers -user joe@pve -role PVEUserAdmin
476
0abc65b0 477NOTE: The user is able to add other users, but only if they are
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478members of group `customers` and within realm `pve`.
479
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480
481Pools
482~~~~~
483
484An enterprise is usually structured into several smaller departments,
485and it is common that you want to assign resources to them and
486delegate management tasks. A pool is simply a set of virtual machines
487and data stores. You can create pools on the GUI. After that you can
488add resources to the pool (VMs, Storage).
489
490You can also assign permissions to the pool. Those permissions are
491inherited to all pool members.
492
493Lets assume you have a software development department, so we first
494create a group
495
496[source,bash]
497 pveum groupadd developers -comment "Our software developers"
498
499Now we create a new user which is a member of that group
500
501[source,bash]
502 pveum useradd developer1@pve -group developers -password
503
0abc65b0 504NOTE: The -password parameter will prompt you for a password
3c8533f2 505
8c1189b6 506I assume we already created a pool called ``dev-pool'' on the GUI. So we can now assign permission to that pool:
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507
508[source,bash]
509 pveum aclmod /pool/dev-pool/ -group developers -role PVEAdmin
510
511Our software developers can now administrate the resources assigned to
512that pool.
513
514
515ifdef::manvolnum[]
516include::pve-copyright.adoc[]
517endif::manvolnum[]
518