add section about soptware upgrades using apt-get
[pve-docs.git] / sysadmin.adoc
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1Host System Administration
2==========================
3
4{pve} is based on the famous https://www.debian.org/[Debian] Linux
5distribution. That means that you have access to the whole world of
6Debian packages, and the base system is well documented. The
7https://debian-handbook.info/download/stable/debian-handbook.pdf[Debian
8Administrator\'s Handbook] is available online, and provide a
9comprehensive introduction to the Debian operating system (see
10xref:Hertzog13[]).
11
12A standard {pve} installation uses the default repositories from
13Debian, so you get bug fixes and security updates through that
14channel. In addition, we provide our own package repository to roll
15out all {pve} related packages. This includes updates to some
16Debian packages when necessary.
17
18We also deliver a specially optimized Linux kernel, where we enable all
19required virtualization and container features. That kernel includes
20drivers for http://zfsonlinux.org/[ZFS], and several hardware drivers.
21For example, we ship Intel network card drivers to support their
22newest hardware.
23
24The following sections will concentrate on virtualization related
25topics. They either explains things which are different on {pve}, or
26tasks which are commonly used on {pve}. For other topics, please refer
27to the standard Debian documentation.
28
29System requirements
30-------------------
31
32For production servers, high quality server equipment is needed. Keep
33in mind, if you run 10 Virtual Servers on one machine and you then
34experience a hardware failure, 10 services are lost. {pve}
35supports clustering, this means that multiple {pve} installations
36can be centrally managed thanks to the included cluster functionality.
37
38{pve} can use local storage (DAS), SAN, NAS and also distributed
39storage (Ceph RBD). For details see xref:chapter-storage[chapter storage].
40
41Minimum requirements, for evaluation
42~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
43
44* CPU: 64bit (Intel EMT64 or AMD64)
45
46* RAM: 1 GB RAM
47
48* Hard drive
49
50* One NIC
51
52Recommended system requirements
53~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
54
55* CPU: 64bit (Intel EMT64 or AMD64), Multi core CPU recommended
56
57* RAM: 8 GB is good, more is better
58
59* Hardware RAID with batteries protected write cache (BBU) or flash
60 based protection
61
62* Fast hard drives, best results with 15k rpm SAS, Raid10
63
64* At least two NICĀ“s, depending on the used storage technology you need more
65
66
67Getting Help
68------------
69
70There are basically two different support channels. {pve} itself if
71fully open source, so we always encourage our users to discuss and
72share their knowledge using the http://forum.proxmox.com/[Community
73Support Forum]. The forum is fully moderated by the Proxmox support
74team. Up to now, the forum has about 25.000 members, and more than
75120.000 messages. Needless to say that such a large forum is a great
76place to get information.
77
78The second channel is the commercial support provided by
79{proxmoxGmbh}. {pve} server subscriptions can be ordered online, see
80http://shop.maurer-it.com[{pve} Shop]. For all details see
81http://www.proxmox.com/proxmox-ve/pricing[{pve} Subscription Service
82Plans].
83
84Please contact the mailto:office@proxmox.com[Proxmox sales team] for
85commercial support requests or volume discounts.
86
87Package Repositories
88--------------------
89
90All Debian based systems use
91http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_Packaging_Tool[APT] as package
92management tool. The list of repositories is defined in
93'/etc/apt/sources.list' and '.list' files found inside
94'/etc/apt/sources.d/'. Updates can be installed directly using
95'apt-get', or via the GUI.
96
97Apt 'sources.list' files lists one package repository per line, with
98the most preferred source listed first. Empty lines are ignored, and a
99'#' character anywhere on a line marks the remainder of that line as a
100comment. The information available from the configured sources is
101acquired by 'apt-get update'.
102
103.File '/etc/apt/sources.list'
104----
105deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian jessie main contrib
106
107# security updates
108deb http://security.debian.org jessie/updates main contrib
109----
110
111In addition, {pve} provides three different package repositories.
112
113{pve} Enterprise Repository
114~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
115
116This is the default, stable and recommended repository, available for
117all {pve} subscription users. It contains the most stable packages,
118and is suitable for production use. You need a valid subscription key
119to access this repository. The `pve-enterprise` repository is enabled
120by default:
121
122.File '/etc/apt/sources.list.d/pve-enterprise.list'
123----
124deb https://enterprise.proxmox.com/debian jessie pve-enterprise
125----
126
127NOTE: You can disable this repository by commenting out the above line
128using a '#' (at the start of the line). This prevents error messages
129if you do not have a subscription key. Please configure the
130`pve-no-subscription` repository in that case.
131
132As soon as updates are available, the `root@pam` user is notified via
133email about the available new packages. On the GUI, the change-log of
134each package can be viewed (if available), showing all details of the
135update. So you will never miss important security fixes.
136
137{pve} No-Subscription Repository
138~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
139
140As the name suggests, you do not need a subscription key to access
141this repository. It can be used for testing and non-production
142use. Its not recommended to run on production servers, as these
143packages are not always heavily tested and validated.
144
145We recommend to configure this repository in '/etc/apt/sources.list'.
146
147.File '/etc/apt/sources.list'
148----
149deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian jessie main contrib
150
151# PVE pve-no-subscription repository provided by proxmox.com,
152# NOT recommended for production use
153deb http://download.proxmox.com/debian jessie pve-no-subscription
154
155# security updates
156deb http://security.debian.org jessie/updates main contrib
157----
158
159
160{pve} Test Repository
161~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
162
163Finally, there is a repository called `pvetest`. This one contains the
164latest packages and is heavily used by developers to test new
165features. As usual, you can configure this using
166'/etc/apt/sources.list' by adding the following line:
167
168.sources.list entry for `pvetest`
169----
170deb http://download.proxmox.com/debian jessie pvetest
171----
172
173
174Installing {pve}
175----------------
176
177{pve} ships as a set of Debian packages, so you can simply install it
178on top of a normal Debian installation. After configuring the
179repositories, you need to run:
180
181[source,bash]
182----
183apt-get update
184apt-get install proxmox-ve
185----
186
187While this looks easy, it presumes that you have correctly installed
188the base system, and you know how you want to configure and use the
189local storage. Network configuration is also completely up to you.
190
191In general, this is not trivial, especially when you use LVM or
661c797a 192ZFS. This is why we provide an installation CD-ROM for {pve}. That
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193installer just ask you a few questions, then partitions the local
194disk(s), installs all required packages, and configures the system
195including a basic network setup. You can get a fully functional system
196within a few minutes, including the following:
197
198* Complete operating system (Debian Linux, 64-bit)
199* Partition the hard drive with ext4 (alternative ext3 or xfs) or ZFS
200* {pve} Kernel with LXC and KVM support
201* Complete toolset
202* Web based management interface
203
204NOTE: By default, the complete server is used and all existing data is
205removed.
206
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207Using the {pve} Installation CD-ROM
208~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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209
210Please insert the installation CD-ROM, then boot from that
211drive. Immediately afterwards you can choose the following menu
212options:
213
214Install Proxmox VE::
215
216Start normal installation.
217
218Install Proxmox VE (Debug mode)::
219
220Start installation in debug mode. It opens a shell console at several
221installation steps, so that you can debug things if something goes
222wrong. Please press `CTRL-D` to exit those debug consoles and continue
223installation. This option is mostly for developers and not meant for
224general use.
225
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226Rescue Boot::
227
228This option allows you to boot an existing installation. It searches
229all attached hard disks, and if it finds an existing installation,
230boots directly into that disk using the existing Linux kernel. This
231can be useful if there are problems with the boot block (grub), or the
232BIOS is unable to read the boot block from the disk.
233
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234Test Memory::
235
236Runs 'memtest86+'. This is useful to check if your memory if
237functional and error free.
238
0578bfcc 239You normally select *Install Proxmox VE* to start the installation.
c2ce70b6 240After that you get prompted to select the target hard disk(s). The
661c797a 241`Options` button aside lets you select the target file system, and
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242defaults to `ext4`. The installer uses LVM if you select 'ext3',
243'ext4' or 'xfs' as file system, and offers additional option to
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244restrict LVM space (see <<advanced_lvm_options,below>>)
245
246If you have more than one disk, you can also use ZFS as file system.
247ZFS supports several software RAID levels, so this is specially useful
248if you do not have a hardware RAID controller. The `Options` button
249lets you select the ZFS RAID level, and you can choose disks there.
250
251The next pages just asks for basic configuration options like time
252zone and keyboard layout. You also need to specify your email address
253and select a superuser password.
254
255The last step is the network configuration. Please note that you can
256use either IPv4 or IPv6 here, but not both. If you want to configure a
257dual stack node, you can easily do that after installation.
258
259If you press `Next` now, installation starts to format disks, and
260copies packages to the target. Please wait until that is finished,
261then reboot the server.
262
263Further configuration is done via the Proxmox web interface. Just
264point your browser to the IP address given during installation
265(https://youripaddress:8006). {pve} is tested for IE9, Firefox 10
266and higher, and Google Chrome.
c2ce70b6 267
438cb082 268
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269[[advanced_lvm_options]]
270Advanced LVM configuration options
271^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
272
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273The installer creates a Volume Group (VG) called `pve`, and additional
274Logical Volumes (LVs) called `root`, `data` and `swap`. The size of
275those volumes can be controlled with:
276
277`hdsize`::
278
279Defines the total HD size to be used. This way you can save free
280space on the HD for further partitioning (i.e. for an additional PV
281and VG on the same hard disk that can be used for LVM storage).
282
283`swapsize`::
284
285To define the size of the `swap` volume. Default is the same size as
286installed RAM, with 4GB minimum and `hdsize/8` as maximum.
287
288`maxroot`::
289
290The `root` volume size. The `root` volume stores the whole operation
291system.
292
293`maxvz`::
294
295Define the size of the `data` volume, which is mounted at
296'/var/lib/vz'.
297
298`minfree`::
299
300To define the amount of free space left in LVM volume group `pve`.
30116GB is the default if storage available > 128GB, `hdsize/8` otherwise.
302+
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303NOTE: LVM requires free space in the VG for snapshot creation (not
304required for lvmthin snapshots).
438cb082 305
c2ce70b6 306
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307ZFS Performance Tips
308^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
309
f6733ab3 310ZFS uses a lot of memory, so it is best to add additional 8-16GB RAM
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311if you want to use ZFS.
312
0578bfcc 313ZFS also provides the feature to use a fast SSD drive as write cache. The
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314write cache is called the ZFS Intent Log (ZIL). You can add that after
315installation using the following command:
316
317 zpool add <pool-name> log </dev/path_to_fast_ssd>
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318
319
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320System Software Updates
321-----------------------
322
323We provide regular package updates on all repositories. You can
324install those update using the GUI, or you can directly run the CLI
325command 'apt-get':
326
327 apt-get update
328 apt-get dist-upgrade
329
330NOTE: The 'apt' package management system is extremely flexible and
331provides countless of feature - see `man apt-get` or <<Hertzog13>> for
332additional information.
333
334You should do such updates at regular intervals, or when we release
335versions with security related fixes. Major system upgrades are
336announced at the https://forum.proxmox.com/[Forum]. Those announcement
337also contain detailed upgrade instructions.
338
339TIP: We recommend to run regular upgrades, because it is important to
340get the latest security updates.
341
342
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343Network Configuration
344---------------------
345
346Basic network setup.
347
348image::images/cluster-nwdiag.svg[{pve} Cluster Network]
349
350image::images/node-nwdiag.svg[{pve} Default Network Setup]
351
352
353Local Storage
354-------------
355
356Logical Volume Manager (LVM)
357~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
358
650c5cc1 359TODO: info about LVM.
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360
361
362ZFS on Linux
363~~~~~~~~~~~~
364
650c5cc1 365TODO: info about ZFS.
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366
367
368Working with 'systemd'
369----------------------
370
371Journal and syslog
372~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
373
374TODO: explain persistent journal...
375
376
377
378
379
380
381