8a8a6ae8c2852b72afcd0cc37db24124e79808cc
[pve-docs.git] / pveum.adoc
1 ifdef::manvolnum[]
2 PVE({manvolnum})
3 ================
4 include::attributes.txt[]
5
6 NAME
7 ----
8
9 pveum - Proxmox VE User Manager
10
11
12 SYNOPSYS
13 --------
14
15 include::pveum.1-synopsis.adoc[]
16
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 endif::manvolnum[]
21
22 ifndef::manvolnum[]
23 User Management
24 ===============
25 include::attributes.txt[]
26 endif::manvolnum[]
27
28 // Copied from pve wiki: Revision as of 16:10, 27 October 2015
29
30 Proxmox VE supports multiple authentication sources, e.g. Microsoft
31 Active Directory, LDAP, Linux PAM or the integrated Proxmox VE
32 authentication server.
33
34 By using the role based user- and permission management for all
35 objects (VMs, storages, nodes, etc.) granular access can be defined.
36
37
38 [[authentication-realms]]
39 Authentication Realms
40 ---------------------
41
42 As {pve} users are just counterparts for users existing on some external
43 realm, the realms have to be configured in `/etc/pve/domains.cfg`.
44 The following realms (authentication methods) are available:
45
46 Linux PAM standard authentication::
47 In this case a system user has to exist (eg. created via the `adduser`
48 command) on all nodes the user is allowed to login, and the user
49 authenticates with their usual system password.
50 +
51 [source,bash]
52 ----
53 useradd heinz
54 passwd heinz
55 groupadd watchman
56 usermod -a -G watchman heinz
57 ----
58
59 Proxmox VE authentication server::
60 This is a unix like password store (`/etc/pve/priv/shadow.cfg`).
61 Password are encrypted using the SHA-256 hash method.
62 This is the most convenient method for for small (or even medium)
63 installations where users do not need access to anything outside of
64 {pve}. In this case users are fully managed by {pve} and are able to
65 change their own passwords via the GUI.
66
67 LDAP::
68 It is possible to authenticate users via an LDAP server (eq.
69 openldap). The server and an optional fallback server can be
70 configured and the connection can be encrypted via SSL.
71 +
72 Users are searched under a 'Base Domain Name' (`base_dn`), with the
73 user name found in the attribute specified in the 'User Attribute Name'
74 (`user_attr`) field.
75 +
76 For instance, if a user is represented via the
77 following ldif dataset:
78 +
79 ----
80 # user1 of People at ldap-test.com
81 dn: uid=user1,ou=People,dc=ldap-test,dc=com
82 objectClass: top
83 objectClass: person
84 objectClass: organizationalPerson
85 objectClass: inetOrgPerson
86 uid: user1
87 cn: Test User 1
88 sn: Testers
89 description: This is the first test user.
90 ----
91 +
92 The 'Base Domain Name' would be `ou=People,dc=ldap-test,dc=com` and the user
93 attribute would be `uid`.
94 +
95 If {pve} needs to authenticate (bind) to the ldap server before being
96 able to query and authenticate users, a bind domain name can be
97 configured via the `bind_dn` property in `/etc/pve/domains.cfg`. Its
98 password then has to be stored in `/etc/pve/priv/ldap/<realmname>.pw`
99 (eg. `/etc/pve/priv/ldap/my-ldap.pw`). This file should contain a
100 single line containing the raw password.
101
102 Microsoft Active Directory::
103
104 A server and authentication domain need to be specified. Like with
105 ldap an optional fallback server, optional port, and SSL
106 encryption can be configured.
107
108
109 Terms and Definitions
110 ---------------------
111
112
113 Users
114 ~~~~~
115
116 A Proxmox VE user name consists of two parts: `<userid>@<realm>`. The
117 login screen on the GUI shows them a separate items, but it is
118 internally used as single string.
119
120 We store the following attribute for users (`/etc/pve/user.cfg`):
121
122 * first name
123 * last name
124 * email address
125 * expiration date
126 * flag to enable/disable account
127 * comment
128
129
130 Superuser
131 ^^^^^^^^^
132
133 The traditional unix superuser account is called `root@pam`. All
134 system mails are forwarded to the email assigned to that account.
135
136
137 Groups
138 ~~~~~~
139
140 Each user can be member of several groups. Groups are the preferred
141 way to organize access permissions. You should always grant permission
142 to groups instead of using individual users. That way you will get a
143 much shorter access control list which is easier to handle.
144
145
146 Objects and Paths
147 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
148
149 Access permissions are assigned to objects, such as a virtual machines
150 (`/vms/{vmid}`) or a storage (`/storage/{storeid}`) or a pool of
151 resources (`/pool/{poolname}`). We use file system like paths to
152 address those objects. Those paths form a natural tree, and
153 permissions can be inherited down that hierarchy.
154
155
156 Privileges
157 ~~~~~~~~~~
158
159 A privilege is the right to perform a specific action. To simplify
160 management, lists of privileges are grouped into roles, which can then
161 be uses to set permissions.
162
163 We currently use the following privileges:
164
165 Node / System related privileges::
166
167 * `Permissions.Modify`: modify access permissions
168 * `Sys.PowerMgmt`: Node power management (start, stop, reset, shutdown, ...)
169 * `Sys.Console`: console access to Node
170 * `Sys.Syslog`: view Syslog
171 * `Sys.Audit`: view node status/config
172 * `Sys.Modify`: create/remove/modify node network parameters
173 * `Group.Allocate`: create/remove/modify groups
174 * `Pool.Allocate`: create/remove/modify a pool
175 * `Realm.Allocate`: create/remove/modify authentication realms
176 * `Realm.AllocateUser`: assign user to a realm
177 * `User.Modify`: create/remove/modify user access and details.
178
179 Virtual machine related privileges::
180
181 * `VM.Allocate`: create/remove new VM to server inventory
182 * `VM.Migrate`: migrate VM to alternate server on cluster
183 * `VM.PowerMgmt`: power management (start, stop, reset, shutdown, ...)
184 * `VM.Console`: console access to VM
185 * `VM.Monitor`: access to VM monitor (kvm)
186 * `VM.Backup`: backup/restore VMs
187 * `VM.Audit`: view VM config
188 * `VM.Clone`: clone/copy a VM
189 * `VM.Config.Disk`: add/modify/delete Disks
190 * `VM.Config.CDROM`: eject/change CDROM
191 * `VM.Config.CPU`: modify CPU settings
192 * `VM.Config.Memory`: modify Memory settings
193 * `VM.Config.Network`: add/modify/delete Network devices
194 * `VM.Config.HWType`: modify emulated HW type
195 * `VM.Config.Options`: modify any other VM configuration
196 * `VM.Snapshot`: create/remove VM snapshots
197
198 Storage related privileges::
199
200 * `Datastore.Allocate`: create/remove/modify a data store, delete volumes
201 * `Datastore.AllocateSpace`: allocate space on a datastore
202 * `Datastore.AllocateTemplate`: allocate/upload templates and iso images
203 * `Datastore.Audit`: view/browse a datastore
204
205
206 Roles
207 ~~~~~
208
209 A role is simply a list of privileges. Proxmox VE comes with a number
210 of predefined roles which satisfies most needs.
211
212 * `Administrator`: has all privileges
213 * `NoAccess`: has no privileges (used to forbid access)
214 * `PVEAdmin`: can do most things, but miss rights to modify system settings (`Sys.PowerMgmt`, `Sys.Modify`, `Realm.Allocate`).
215 * `PVEAuditor`: read only access
216 * `PVEDatastoreAdmin`: create and allocate backup space and templates
217 * `PVEDatastoreUser`: allocate backup space and view storage
218 * `PVEPoolAdmin`: allocate pools
219 * `PVESysAdmin`: User ACLs, audit, system console and system logs
220 * `PVETemplateUser`: view and clone templates
221 * `PVEUserAdmin`: user administration
222 * `PVEVMAdmin`: fully administer VMs
223 * `PVEVMUser`: view, backup, config CDROM, VM console, VM power management
224
225 You can see the whole set of predefined roles on the GUI.
226
227 Adding new roles using the CLI:
228
229 [source,bash]
230 ----
231 pveum roleadd PVE_Power-only -privs "VM.PowerMgmt VM.Console"
232 pveum roleadd Sys_Power-only -privs "Sys.PowerMgmt Sys.Console"
233 ----
234
235
236 Permissions
237 ~~~~~~~~~~~
238
239 Permissions are the way we control access to objects. In technical
240 terms they are simply a triple containing `<path,user,role>`. This
241 concept is also known as access control lists. Each permission
242 specifies a subject (user or group) and a role (set of privileges) on
243 a specific path.
244
245 When a subject requests an action on an object, the framework looks up
246 the roles assigned to that subject (using the object path). The set of
247 roles defines the granted privileges.
248
249
250 Inheritance
251 ^^^^^^^^^^^
252
253 As mentioned earlier, object paths form a file system like tree, and
254 permissions can be inherited down that tree (the propagate flag is set
255 by default). We use the following inheritance rules:
256
257 * permission for individual users always overwrite group permission.
258 * permission for groups apply when the user is member of that group.
259 * permission set at higher level always overwrites inherited permissions.
260
261
262 What permission do I need?
263 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
264
265 The required API permissions are documented for each individual
266 method, and can be found at http://pve.proxmox.com/pve-docs/api-viewer/
267
268
269 Pools
270 ~~~~~
271
272 Pools can be used to group a set of virtual machines and data
273 stores. You can then simply set permissions on pools (`/pool/{poolid}`),
274 which are inherited to all pool members. This is a great way simplify
275 access control.
276
277 Command Line Tool
278 -----------------
279
280 Most users will simply use the GUI to manage users. But there is also
281 a full featured command line tool called `pveum` (short for ``**P**roxmox
282 **VE** **U**ser **M**anager''). Please note that all Proxmox VE command
283 line tools are wrappers around the API, so you can also access those
284 function through the REST API.
285
286 Here are some simple usage examples. To show help type:
287
288 [source,bash]
289 pveum
290
291 or (to show detailed help about a specific command)
292
293 [source,bash]
294 pveum help useradd
295
296 Create a new user:
297
298 [source,bash]
299 pveum useradd testuser@pve -comment "Just a test"
300
301 Set or Change the password (not all realms support that):
302
303 [source,bash]
304 pveum passwd testuser@pve
305
306 Disable a user:
307
308 [source,bash]
309 pveum usermod testuser@pve -enable 0
310
311 Create a new group:
312
313 [source,bash]
314 pveum groupadd testgroup
315
316 Create a new role:
317
318 [source,bash]
319 pveum roleadd PVE_Power-only -privs "VM.PowerMgmt VM.Console"
320
321
322 Real World Examples
323 -------------------
324
325
326 Administrator Group
327 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
328
329 One of the most wanted features was the ability to define a group of
330 users with full administrator rights (without using the root account).
331
332 Define the group:
333
334 [source,bash]
335 pveum groupadd admin -comment "System Administrators"
336
337 Then add the permission:
338
339 [source,bash]
340 pveum aclmod / -group admin -role Administrator
341
342 You can finally add users to the new 'admin' group:
343
344 [source,bash]
345 pveum usermod testuser@pve -group admin
346
347
348 Auditors
349 ~~~~~~~~
350
351 You can give read only access to users by assigning the `PVEAuditor`
352 role to users or groups.
353
354 Example1: Allow user `joe@pve` to see everything
355
356 [source,bash]
357 pveum aclmod / -user joe@pve -role PVEAuditor
358
359 Example1: Allow user `joe@pve` to see all virtual machines
360
361 [source,bash]
362 pveum aclmod /vms -user joe@pve -role PVEAuditor
363
364
365 Delegate User Management
366 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
367
368 If you want to delegate user managenent to user `joe@pve` you can do
369 that with:
370
371 [source,bash]
372 pveum aclmod /access -user joe@pve -role PVEUserAdmin
373
374 User `joe@pve` can now add and remove users, change passwords and
375 other user attributes. This is a very powerful role, and you most
376 likely want to limit that to selected realms and groups. The following
377 example allows `joe@pve` to modify users within realm `pve` if they
378 are members of group `customers`:
379
380 [source,bash]
381 pveum aclmod /access/realm/pve -user joe@pve -role PVEUserAdmin
382 pveum aclmod /access/groups/customers -user joe@pve -role PVEUserAdmin
383
384 NOTE: The user is able to add other users, but only if they are
385 members of group `customers` and within realm `pve`.
386
387
388 Pools
389 ~~~~~
390
391 An enterprise is usually structured into several smaller departments,
392 and it is common that you want to assign resources to them and
393 delegate management tasks. A pool is simply a set of virtual machines
394 and data stores. You can create pools on the GUI. After that you can
395 add resources to the pool (VMs, Storage).
396
397 You can also assign permissions to the pool. Those permissions are
398 inherited to all pool members.
399
400 Lets assume you have a software development department, so we first
401 create a group
402
403 [source,bash]
404 pveum groupadd developers -comment "Our software developers"
405
406 Now we create a new user which is a member of that group
407
408 [source,bash]
409 pveum useradd developer1@pve -group developers -password
410
411 NOTE: The -password parameter will prompt you for a password
412
413 I assume we already created a pool called ``dev-pool'' on the GUI. So we can now assign permission to that pool:
414
415 [source,bash]
416 pveum aclmod /pool/dev-pool/ -group developers -role PVEAdmin
417
418 Our software developers can now administrate the resources assigned to
419 that pool.
420
421
422 ifdef::manvolnum[]
423 include::pve-copyright.adoc[]
424 endif::manvolnum[]
425