replace Terms and Definitions with a general introduction
[pve-docs.git] / pveum.adoc
1 ifdef::manvolnum[]
2 PVE({manvolnum})
3 ================
4 include::attributes.txt[]
5
6 NAME
7 ----
8
9 pveum - Proxmox VE User Manager
10
11
12 SYNOPSYS
13 --------
14
15 include::pveum.1-synopsis.adoc[]
16
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 endif::manvolnum[]
21
22 ifndef::manvolnum[]
23 User Management
24 ===============
25 include::attributes.txt[]
26 endif::manvolnum[]
27
28 // Copied from pve wiki: Revision as of 16:10, 27 October 2015
29
30 Proxmox VE supports multiple authentication sources, e.g. Linux PAM,
31 an integrated Proxmox VE authentication server, LDAP, Microsoft Active
32 Directory.
33
34 By using the role based user- and permission management for all
35 objects (VMs, storages, nodes, etc.) granular access can be defined.
36
37
38 Users
39 -----
40
41 {pve} stores user attributes in `/etc/pve/user.cfg`.
42 Passwords are not stored here, users are instead associated with
43 <<authentication-realms,authentication realms>> described below.
44 Therefore a user is internally often identified by its name and
45 realm in the form `<userid>@<realm>`.
46
47 Each user entry in this file contains the following information:
48
49 * First name
50 * Last name
51 * E-mail address
52 * Group memberships
53 * An optional Expiration date
54 * A comment or note about this user
55 * Whether this user is enabled or disabled
56 * Optional two factor authentication keys
57
58
59 System administrator
60 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
61
62 The system's root user can always log in via the Linux PAM realm and is an
63 unconfined administrator. This user cannot be deleted, but attributes can
64 still be changed and system mails will be sent to the email address
65 assigned to this user.
66
67
68 Groups
69 ~~~~~~
70
71 Each user can be member of several groups. Groups are the preferred
72 way to organize access permissions. You should always grant permission
73 to groups instead of using individual users. That way you will get a
74 much shorter access control list which is easier to handle.
75
76
77 [[authentication-realms]]
78 Authentication Realms
79 ---------------------
80
81 As {pve} users are just counterparts for users existing on some external
82 realm, the realms have to be configured in `/etc/pve/domains.cfg`.
83 The following realms (authentication methods) are available:
84
85 Linux PAM standard authentication::
86 In this case a system user has to exist (eg. created via the `adduser`
87 command) on all nodes the user is allowed to login, and the user
88 authenticates with their usual system password.
89 +
90 [source,bash]
91 ----
92 useradd heinz
93 passwd heinz
94 groupadd watchman
95 usermod -a -G watchman heinz
96 ----
97
98 Proxmox VE authentication server::
99 This is a unix like password store (`/etc/pve/priv/shadow.cfg`).
100 Password are encrypted using the SHA-256 hash method.
101 This is the most convenient method for for small (or even medium)
102 installations where users do not need access to anything outside of
103 {pve}. In this case users are fully managed by {pve} and are able to
104 change their own passwords via the GUI.
105
106 LDAP::
107 It is possible to authenticate users via an LDAP server (eq.
108 openldap). The server and an optional fallback server can be
109 configured and the connection can be encrypted via SSL.
110 +
111 Users are searched under a 'Base Domain Name' (`base_dn`), with the
112 user name found in the attribute specified in the 'User Attribute Name'
113 (`user_attr`) field.
114 +
115 For instance, if a user is represented via the
116 following ldif dataset:
117 +
118 ----
119 # user1 of People at ldap-test.com
120 dn: uid=user1,ou=People,dc=ldap-test,dc=com
121 objectClass: top
122 objectClass: person
123 objectClass: organizationalPerson
124 objectClass: inetOrgPerson
125 uid: user1
126 cn: Test User 1
127 sn: Testers
128 description: This is the first test user.
129 ----
130 +
131 The 'Base Domain Name' would be `ou=People,dc=ldap-test,dc=com` and the user
132 attribute would be `uid`.
133 +
134 If {pve} needs to authenticate (bind) to the ldap server before being
135 able to query and authenticate users, a bind domain name can be
136 configured via the `bind_dn` property in `/etc/pve/domains.cfg`. Its
137 password then has to be stored in `/etc/pve/priv/ldap/<realmname>.pw`
138 (eg. `/etc/pve/priv/ldap/my-ldap.pw`). This file should contain a
139 single line containing the raw password.
140
141 Microsoft Active Directory::
142
143 A server and authentication domain need to be specified. Like with
144 ldap an optional fallback server, optional port, and SSL
145 encryption can be configured.
146
147
148 Two factor authentication
149 -------------------------
150
151 Each realm can optionally be secured additionally by two factor
152 authentication. This can be done by selecting one of the available methods
153 via the 'TFA' dropdown box when adding or editing an Authentication Realm.
154 When a realm has TFA enabled it becomes a requirement and only users with
155 configured TFA will be able to login.
156
157 Currently there are two methods available:
158
159 Time based OATH (TOTP)::
160 This uses the standard HMAC-SHA1 algorithm where the current time is hashed
161 with the user's configured key. The time step and password length
162 parameters are configured.
163 +
164 A user can have multiple keys configured (separated by spaces), and the
165 keys can be specified in Base32 (RFC3548) or hexadecimal notation.
166 +
167 {pve} provides a key generation tool (`oathkeygen`) which prints out a
168 random key in Base32 notation which can be used directly with various OTP
169 tools, such as the `oathtool` command line tool, the Google authenticator
170 or FreeOTP Android apps.
171
172 YubiKey OTP::
173 For authenticating via a YubiKey a Yubico API ID, API KEY and validation
174 server URL must be configured, and users must have a YubiKey available. In
175 order to get the key ID from a YubiKey, you can trigger the YubiKey once
176 after connecting it to USB and copy the first 12 characters of the typed
177 password into the user's 'Key IDs' field.
178 +
179 Please refer to the
180 https://developers.yubico.com/OTP/[YubiKey OTP] documentation for how to use the
181 https://www.yubico.com/products/services-software/yubicloud/[YubiCloud] or
182 https://developers.yubico.com/Software_Projects/YubiKey_OTP/YubiCloud_Validation_Servers/[
183 host your own verification server].
184
185
186 Permission Management
187 ---------------------
188
189 In order for a user to perform an action (such as listing, modifying or
190 deleting a parts of a VM configuration), the user needs to have the
191 appropriate permissions.
192
193 {pve} uses a role and path based permission management system. An entry in
194 the permissions table allows a user or group to take on a specific role
195 when accessing an 'object' or 'path'. This means an such an access rule can
196 be represented as a triple of '(path, user, role)' or '(path, group,
197 role)', with the role containing a set of allowed actions, and the path
198 representing the target of these actions.
199
200
201 Objects and Paths
202 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
203
204 Access permissions are assigned to objects, such as a virtual machines
205 (`/vms/{vmid}`) or a storage (`/storage/{storeid}`) or a pool of
206 resources (`/pool/{poolname}`). We use file system like paths to
207 address those objects. Those paths form a natural tree, and
208 permissions can be inherited down that hierarchy.
209
210
211 Privileges
212 ~~~~~~~~~~
213
214 A privilege is the right to perform a specific action. To simplify
215 management, lists of privileges are grouped into roles, which can then
216 be uses to set permissions.
217
218 We currently use the following privileges:
219
220 Node / System related privileges::
221
222 * `Permissions.Modify`: modify access permissions
223 * `Sys.PowerMgmt`: Node power management (start, stop, reset, shutdown, ...)
224 * `Sys.Console`: console access to Node
225 * `Sys.Syslog`: view Syslog
226 * `Sys.Audit`: view node status/config
227 * `Sys.Modify`: create/remove/modify node network parameters
228 * `Group.Allocate`: create/remove/modify groups
229 * `Pool.Allocate`: create/remove/modify a pool
230 * `Realm.Allocate`: create/remove/modify authentication realms
231 * `Realm.AllocateUser`: assign user to a realm
232 * `User.Modify`: create/remove/modify user access and details.
233
234 Virtual machine related privileges::
235
236 * `VM.Allocate`: create/remove new VM to server inventory
237 * `VM.Migrate`: migrate VM to alternate server on cluster
238 * `VM.PowerMgmt`: power management (start, stop, reset, shutdown, ...)
239 * `VM.Console`: console access to VM
240 * `VM.Monitor`: access to VM monitor (kvm)
241 * `VM.Backup`: backup/restore VMs
242 * `VM.Audit`: view VM config
243 * `VM.Clone`: clone/copy a VM
244 * `VM.Config.Disk`: add/modify/delete Disks
245 * `VM.Config.CDROM`: eject/change CDROM
246 * `VM.Config.CPU`: modify CPU settings
247 * `VM.Config.Memory`: modify Memory settings
248 * `VM.Config.Network`: add/modify/delete Network devices
249 * `VM.Config.HWType`: modify emulated HW type
250 * `VM.Config.Options`: modify any other VM configuration
251 * `VM.Snapshot`: create/remove VM snapshots
252
253 Storage related privileges::
254
255 * `Datastore.Allocate`: create/remove/modify a data store, delete volumes
256 * `Datastore.AllocateSpace`: allocate space on a datastore
257 * `Datastore.AllocateTemplate`: allocate/upload templates and iso images
258 * `Datastore.Audit`: view/browse a datastore
259
260
261 Roles
262 ~~~~~
263
264 A role is simply a list of privileges. Proxmox VE comes with a number
265 of predefined roles which satisfies most needs.
266
267 * `Administrator`: has all privileges
268 * `NoAccess`: has no privileges (used to forbid access)
269 * `PVEAdmin`: can do most things, but miss rights to modify system settings (`Sys.PowerMgmt`, `Sys.Modify`, `Realm.Allocate`).
270 * `PVEAuditor`: read only access
271 * `PVEDatastoreAdmin`: create and allocate backup space and templates
272 * `PVEDatastoreUser`: allocate backup space and view storage
273 * `PVEPoolAdmin`: allocate pools
274 * `PVESysAdmin`: User ACLs, audit, system console and system logs
275 * `PVETemplateUser`: view and clone templates
276 * `PVEUserAdmin`: user administration
277 * `PVEVMAdmin`: fully administer VMs
278 * `PVEVMUser`: view, backup, config CDROM, VM console, VM power management
279
280 You can see the whole set of predefined roles on the GUI.
281
282 Adding new roles using the CLI:
283
284 [source,bash]
285 ----
286 pveum roleadd PVE_Power-only -privs "VM.PowerMgmt VM.Console"
287 pveum roleadd Sys_Power-only -privs "Sys.PowerMgmt Sys.Console"
288 ----
289
290
291 Permissions
292 ~~~~~~~~~~~
293
294 Permissions are the way we control access to objects. In technical
295 terms they are simply a triple containing `<path,user,role>`. This
296 concept is also known as access control lists. Each permission
297 specifies a subject (user or group) and a role (set of privileges) on
298 a specific path.
299
300 When a subject requests an action on an object, the framework looks up
301 the roles assigned to that subject (using the object path). The set of
302 roles defines the granted privileges.
303
304
305 Inheritance
306 ^^^^^^^^^^^
307
308 As mentioned earlier, object paths form a file system like tree, and
309 permissions can be inherited down that tree (the propagate flag is set
310 by default). We use the following inheritance rules:
311
312 * Permissions for individual users always replace group permissions.
313 * Permissions for groups apply when the user is member of that group.
314 * Permissions replace the ones inherited from an upper level.
315
316
317 Pools
318 ~~~~~
319
320 Pools can be used to group a set of virtual machines and data
321 stores. You can then simply set permissions on pools (`/pool/{poolid}`),
322 which are inherited to all pool members. This is a great way simplify
323 access control.
324
325
326 What permission do I need?
327 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
328
329 The required API permissions are documented for each individual
330 method, and can be found at http://pve.proxmox.com/pve-docs/api-viewer/
331
332 The permissions are specified as a list which can be interpreted as a
333 tree of logic and access-check functions:
334
335 `["and", <subtests>...]` and `["or", <subtests>...]`::
336 Each(`and`) or any(`or`) further element in the current list has to be true.
337
338 `["perm", <path>, [ <privileges>... ], <options>...]`::
339 The `path` is a templated parameter (see <<templated-paths,Objects and
340 Paths>>). All (or , if the `any` option is used, any) of the listed
341 privileges must be allowed on the specified path. If a `require-param`
342 option is specified, then its specified parameter is required even if the
343 API call's schema otherwise lists it as being optional.
344
345 `["userid-group", [ <privileges>... ], <options>...]`::
346 The callermust have any of the listed privileges on `/access/groups`. In
347 addition there are two possible checks depending on whether the
348 `groups_param` option is set:
349 +
350 * `groups_param` is set: The API call has a non-optional `groups` parameter
351 and the caller must have any of the listed privileges on all of the listed
352 groups.
353 * `groups_param` is not set: The user passed via the `userid` parameter
354 must exist and be part of a group on which the caller has any of the listed
355 privileges (via the `/access/groups/<group>` path).
356
357 `["userid-param", "self"]`::
358 The value provided for the API call's `userid` parameter must refer to the
359 user performing the action. (Usually in conjunction with `or`, to allow
360 users to perform an action on themselves even if they don't have elevated
361 privileges.)
362
363 `["userid-param", "Realm.AllocateUser"]`::
364 The user needs `Realm.AllocateUser` access to `/access/realm/<realm>`, with
365 `<realm>` refering to the realm of the user passed via the `userid`
366 parameter. Note that the user does not need to exist in order to be
367 associated with a realm, since user IDs are passed in the form of
368 `<username>@<realm>`.
369
370 `["perm-modify", <path>]`::
371 The `path` is a templated parameter (see <<templated-paths,Objects and
372 Paths>>). The user needs either the `Permissions.Modify` privilege, or,
373 depending on the path, the following privileges as a possible substitute:
374 +
375 * `/storage/...`: additionally requires 'Datastore.Allocate`
376 * `/vms/...`: additionally requires 'VM.Allocate`
377 * `/pool/...`: additionally requires 'Pool.Allocate`
378 +
379 If the path is empty, `Permission.Modify` on `/access` is required.
380
381 Command Line Tool
382 -----------------
383
384 Most users will simply use the GUI to manage users. But there is also
385 a full featured command line tool called `pveum` (short for ``**P**roxmox
386 **VE** **U**ser **M**anager''). Please note that all Proxmox VE command
387 line tools are wrappers around the API, so you can also access those
388 function through the REST API.
389
390 Here are some simple usage examples. To show help type:
391
392 [source,bash]
393 pveum
394
395 or (to show detailed help about a specific command)
396
397 [source,bash]
398 pveum help useradd
399
400 Create a new user:
401
402 [source,bash]
403 pveum useradd testuser@pve -comment "Just a test"
404
405 Set or Change the password (not all realms support that):
406
407 [source,bash]
408 pveum passwd testuser@pve
409
410 Disable a user:
411
412 [source,bash]
413 pveum usermod testuser@pve -enable 0
414
415 Create a new group:
416
417 [source,bash]
418 pveum groupadd testgroup
419
420 Create a new role:
421
422 [source,bash]
423 pveum roleadd PVE_Power-only -privs "VM.PowerMgmt VM.Console"
424
425
426 Real World Examples
427 -------------------
428
429
430 Administrator Group
431 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
432
433 One of the most wanted features was the ability to define a group of
434 users with full administrator rights (without using the root account).
435
436 Define the group:
437
438 [source,bash]
439 pveum groupadd admin -comment "System Administrators"
440
441 Then add the permission:
442
443 [source,bash]
444 pveum aclmod / -group admin -role Administrator
445
446 You can finally add users to the new 'admin' group:
447
448 [source,bash]
449 pveum usermod testuser@pve -group admin
450
451
452 Auditors
453 ~~~~~~~~
454
455 You can give read only access to users by assigning the `PVEAuditor`
456 role to users or groups.
457
458 Example1: Allow user `joe@pve` to see everything
459
460 [source,bash]
461 pveum aclmod / -user joe@pve -role PVEAuditor
462
463 Example1: Allow user `joe@pve` to see all virtual machines
464
465 [source,bash]
466 pveum aclmod /vms -user joe@pve -role PVEAuditor
467
468
469 Delegate User Management
470 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
471
472 If you want to delegate user managenent to user `joe@pve` you can do
473 that with:
474
475 [source,bash]
476 pveum aclmod /access -user joe@pve -role PVEUserAdmin
477
478 User `joe@pve` can now add and remove users, change passwords and
479 other user attributes. This is a very powerful role, and you most
480 likely want to limit that to selected realms and groups. The following
481 example allows `joe@pve` to modify users within realm `pve` if they
482 are members of group `customers`:
483
484 [source,bash]
485 pveum aclmod /access/realm/pve -user joe@pve -role PVEUserAdmin
486 pveum aclmod /access/groups/customers -user joe@pve -role PVEUserAdmin
487
488 NOTE: The user is able to add other users, but only if they are
489 members of group `customers` and within realm `pve`.
490
491
492 Pools
493 ~~~~~
494
495 An enterprise is usually structured into several smaller departments,
496 and it is common that you want to assign resources to them and
497 delegate management tasks. A pool is simply a set of virtual machines
498 and data stores. You can create pools on the GUI. After that you can
499 add resources to the pool (VMs, Storage).
500
501 You can also assign permissions to the pool. Those permissions are
502 inherited to all pool members.
503
504 Lets assume you have a software development department, so we first
505 create a group
506
507 [source,bash]
508 pveum groupadd developers -comment "Our software developers"
509
510 Now we create a new user which is a member of that group
511
512 [source,bash]
513 pveum useradd developer1@pve -group developers -password
514
515 NOTE: The -password parameter will prompt you for a password
516
517 I assume we already created a pool called ``dev-pool'' on the GUI. So we can now assign permission to that pool:
518
519 [source,bash]
520 pveum aclmod /pool/dev-pool/ -group developers -role PVEAdmin
521
522 Our software developers can now administrate the resources assigned to
523 that pool.
524
525
526 ifdef::manvolnum[]
527 include::pve-copyright.adoc[]
528 endif::manvolnum[]
529