reorder the roles section
[pve-docs.git] / pveum.adoc
1 ifdef::manvolnum[]
2 PVE({manvolnum})
3 ================
4 include::attributes.txt[]
5
6 NAME
7 ----
8
9 pveum - Proxmox VE User Manager
10
11
12 SYNOPSYS
13 --------
14
15 include::pveum.1-synopsis.adoc[]
16
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 endif::manvolnum[]
21
22 ifndef::manvolnum[]
23 User Management
24 ===============
25 include::attributes.txt[]
26 endif::manvolnum[]
27
28 // Copied from pve wiki: Revision as of 16:10, 27 October 2015
29
30 Proxmox VE supports multiple authentication sources, e.g. Linux PAM,
31 an integrated Proxmox VE authentication server, LDAP, Microsoft Active
32 Directory.
33
34 By using the role based user- and permission management for all
35 objects (VMs, storages, nodes, etc.) granular access can be defined.
36
37
38 Users
39 -----
40
41 {pve} stores user attributes in `/etc/pve/user.cfg`.
42 Passwords are not stored here, users are instead associated with
43 <<authentication-realms,authentication realms>> described below.
44 Therefore a user is internally often identified by its name and
45 realm in the form `<userid>@<realm>`.
46
47 Each user entry in this file contains the following information:
48
49 * First name
50 * Last name
51 * E-mail address
52 * Group memberships
53 * An optional Expiration date
54 * A comment or note about this user
55 * Whether this user is enabled or disabled
56 * Optional two factor authentication keys
57
58
59 System administrator
60 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
61
62 The system's root user can always log in via the Linux PAM realm and is an
63 unconfined administrator. This user cannot be deleted, but attributes can
64 still be changed and system mails will be sent to the email address
65 assigned to this user.
66
67
68 Groups
69 ~~~~~~
70
71 Each user can be member of several groups. Groups are the preferred
72 way to organize access permissions. You should always grant permission
73 to groups instead of using individual users. That way you will get a
74 much shorter access control list which is easier to handle.
75
76
77 [[authentication-realms]]
78 Authentication Realms
79 ---------------------
80
81 As {pve} users are just counterparts for users existing on some external
82 realm, the realms have to be configured in `/etc/pve/domains.cfg`.
83 The following realms (authentication methods) are available:
84
85 Linux PAM standard authentication::
86 In this case a system user has to exist (eg. created via the `adduser`
87 command) on all nodes the user is allowed to login, and the user
88 authenticates with their usual system password.
89 +
90 [source,bash]
91 ----
92 useradd heinz
93 passwd heinz
94 groupadd watchman
95 usermod -a -G watchman heinz
96 ----
97
98 Proxmox VE authentication server::
99 This is a unix like password store (`/etc/pve/priv/shadow.cfg`).
100 Password are encrypted using the SHA-256 hash method.
101 This is the most convenient method for for small (or even medium)
102 installations where users do not need access to anything outside of
103 {pve}. In this case users are fully managed by {pve} and are able to
104 change their own passwords via the GUI.
105
106 LDAP::
107 It is possible to authenticate users via an LDAP server (eq.
108 openldap). The server and an optional fallback server can be
109 configured and the connection can be encrypted via SSL.
110 +
111 Users are searched under a 'Base Domain Name' (`base_dn`), with the
112 user name found in the attribute specified in the 'User Attribute Name'
113 (`user_attr`) field.
114 +
115 For instance, if a user is represented via the
116 following ldif dataset:
117 +
118 ----
119 # user1 of People at ldap-test.com
120 dn: uid=user1,ou=People,dc=ldap-test,dc=com
121 objectClass: top
122 objectClass: person
123 objectClass: organizationalPerson
124 objectClass: inetOrgPerson
125 uid: user1
126 cn: Test User 1
127 sn: Testers
128 description: This is the first test user.
129 ----
130 +
131 The 'Base Domain Name' would be `ou=People,dc=ldap-test,dc=com` and the user
132 attribute would be `uid`.
133 +
134 If {pve} needs to authenticate (bind) to the ldap server before being
135 able to query and authenticate users, a bind domain name can be
136 configured via the `bind_dn` property in `/etc/pve/domains.cfg`. Its
137 password then has to be stored in `/etc/pve/priv/ldap/<realmname>.pw`
138 (eg. `/etc/pve/priv/ldap/my-ldap.pw`). This file should contain a
139 single line containing the raw password.
140
141 Microsoft Active Directory::
142
143 A server and authentication domain need to be specified. Like with
144 ldap an optional fallback server, optional port, and SSL
145 encryption can be configured.
146
147
148 Two factor authentication
149 -------------------------
150
151 Each realm can optionally be secured additionally by two factor
152 authentication. This can be done by selecting one of the available methods
153 via the 'TFA' dropdown box when adding or editing an Authentication Realm.
154 When a realm has TFA enabled it becomes a requirement and only users with
155 configured TFA will be able to login.
156
157 Currently there are two methods available:
158
159 Time based OATH (TOTP)::
160 This uses the standard HMAC-SHA1 algorithm where the current time is hashed
161 with the user's configured key. The time step and password length
162 parameters are configured.
163 +
164 A user can have multiple keys configured (separated by spaces), and the
165 keys can be specified in Base32 (RFC3548) or hexadecimal notation.
166 +
167 {pve} provides a key generation tool (`oathkeygen`) which prints out a
168 random key in Base32 notation which can be used directly with various OTP
169 tools, such as the `oathtool` command line tool, the Google authenticator
170 or FreeOTP Android apps.
171
172 YubiKey OTP::
173 For authenticating via a YubiKey a Yubico API ID, API KEY and validation
174 server URL must be configured, and users must have a YubiKey available. In
175 order to get the key ID from a YubiKey, you can trigger the YubiKey once
176 after connecting it to USB and copy the first 12 characters of the typed
177 password into the user's 'Key IDs' field.
178 +
179 Please refer to the
180 https://developers.yubico.com/OTP/[YubiKey OTP] documentation for how to use the
181 https://www.yubico.com/products/services-software/yubicloud/[YubiCloud] or
182 https://developers.yubico.com/Software_Projects/YubiKey_OTP/YubiCloud_Validation_Servers/[
183 host your own verification server].
184
185
186 Permission Management
187 ---------------------
188
189 In order for a user to perform an action (such as listing, modifying or
190 deleting a parts of a VM configuration), the user needs to have the
191 appropriate permissions.
192
193 {pve} uses a role and path based permission management system. An entry in
194 the permissions table allows a user or group to take on a specific role
195 when accessing an 'object' or 'path'. This means an such an access rule can
196 be represented as a triple of '(path, user, role)' or '(path, group,
197 role)', with the role containing a set of allowed actions, and the path
198 representing the target of these actions.
199
200
201 Roles
202 ~~~~~
203
204 A role is simply a list of privileges. Proxmox VE comes with a number
205 of predefined roles which satisfies most needs.
206
207 * `Administrator`: has all privileges
208 * `NoAccess`: has no privileges (used to forbid access)
209 * `PVEAdmin`: can do most things, but miss rights to modify system settings (`Sys.PowerMgmt`, `Sys.Modify`, `Realm.Allocate`).
210 * `PVEAuditor`: read only access
211 * `PVEDatastoreAdmin`: create and allocate backup space and templates
212 * `PVEDatastoreUser`: allocate backup space and view storage
213 * `PVEPoolAdmin`: allocate pools
214 * `PVESysAdmin`: User ACLs, audit, system console and system logs
215 * `PVETemplateUser`: view and clone templates
216 * `PVEUserAdmin`: user administration
217 * `PVEVMAdmin`: fully administer VMs
218 * `PVEVMUser`: view, backup, config CDROM, VM console, VM power management
219
220 You can see the whole set of predefined roles on the GUI.
221
222 Adding new roles can currently only be done from the command line, like
223 this:
224
225 [source,bash]
226 ----
227 pveum roleadd PVE_Power-only -privs "VM.PowerMgmt VM.Console"
228 pveum roleadd Sys_Power-only -privs "Sys.PowerMgmt Sys.Console"
229 ----
230
231
232 Objects and Paths
233 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
234
235 Access permissions are assigned to objects, such as a virtual machines
236 (`/vms/{vmid}`) or a storage (`/storage/{storeid}`) or a pool of
237 resources (`/pool/{poolname}`). We use file system like paths to
238 address those objects. Those paths form a natural tree, and
239 permissions can be inherited down that hierarchy.
240
241
242 Privileges
243 ~~~~~~~~~~
244
245 A privilege is the right to perform a specific action. To simplify
246 management, lists of privileges are grouped into roles, which can then
247 be uses to set permissions.
248
249 We currently use the following privileges:
250
251 Node / System related privileges::
252
253 * `Permissions.Modify`: modify access permissions
254 * `Sys.PowerMgmt`: Node power management (start, stop, reset, shutdown, ...)
255 * `Sys.Console`: console access to Node
256 * `Sys.Syslog`: view Syslog
257 * `Sys.Audit`: view node status/config
258 * `Sys.Modify`: create/remove/modify node network parameters
259 * `Group.Allocate`: create/remove/modify groups
260 * `Pool.Allocate`: create/remove/modify a pool
261 * `Realm.Allocate`: create/remove/modify authentication realms
262 * `Realm.AllocateUser`: assign user to a realm
263 * `User.Modify`: create/remove/modify user access and details.
264
265 Virtual machine related privileges::
266
267 * `VM.Allocate`: create/remove new VM to server inventory
268 * `VM.Migrate`: migrate VM to alternate server on cluster
269 * `VM.PowerMgmt`: power management (start, stop, reset, shutdown, ...)
270 * `VM.Console`: console access to VM
271 * `VM.Monitor`: access to VM monitor (kvm)
272 * `VM.Backup`: backup/restore VMs
273 * `VM.Audit`: view VM config
274 * `VM.Clone`: clone/copy a VM
275 * `VM.Config.Disk`: add/modify/delete Disks
276 * `VM.Config.CDROM`: eject/change CDROM
277 * `VM.Config.CPU`: modify CPU settings
278 * `VM.Config.Memory`: modify Memory settings
279 * `VM.Config.Network`: add/modify/delete Network devices
280 * `VM.Config.HWType`: modify emulated HW type
281 * `VM.Config.Options`: modify any other VM configuration
282 * `VM.Snapshot`: create/remove VM snapshots
283
284 Storage related privileges::
285
286 * `Datastore.Allocate`: create/remove/modify a data store, delete volumes
287 * `Datastore.AllocateSpace`: allocate space on a datastore
288 * `Datastore.AllocateTemplate`: allocate/upload templates and iso images
289 * `Datastore.Audit`: view/browse a datastore
290
291
292 Permissions
293 ~~~~~~~~~~~
294
295 Permissions are the way we control access to objects. In technical
296 terms they are simply a triple containing `<path,user,role>`. This
297 concept is also known as access control lists. Each permission
298 specifies a subject (user or group) and a role (set of privileges) on
299 a specific path.
300
301 When a subject requests an action on an object, the framework looks up
302 the roles assigned to that subject (using the object path). The set of
303 roles defines the granted privileges.
304
305
306 Inheritance
307 ^^^^^^^^^^^
308
309 As mentioned earlier, object paths form a file system like tree, and
310 permissions can be inherited down that tree (the propagate flag is set
311 by default). We use the following inheritance rules:
312
313 * Permissions for individual users always replace group permissions.
314 * Permissions for groups apply when the user is member of that group.
315 * Permissions replace the ones inherited from an upper level.
316
317
318 Pools
319 ~~~~~
320
321 Pools can be used to group a set of virtual machines and data
322 stores. You can then simply set permissions on pools (`/pool/{poolid}`),
323 which are inherited to all pool members. This is a great way simplify
324 access control.
325
326
327 What permission do I need?
328 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
329
330 The required API permissions are documented for each individual
331 method, and can be found at http://pve.proxmox.com/pve-docs/api-viewer/
332
333 The permissions are specified as a list which can be interpreted as a
334 tree of logic and access-check functions:
335
336 `["and", <subtests>...]` and `["or", <subtests>...]`::
337 Each(`and`) or any(`or`) further element in the current list has to be true.
338
339 `["perm", <path>, [ <privileges>... ], <options>...]`::
340 The `path` is a templated parameter (see <<templated-paths,Objects and
341 Paths>>). All (or , if the `any` option is used, any) of the listed
342 privileges must be allowed on the specified path. If a `require-param`
343 option is specified, then its specified parameter is required even if the
344 API call's schema otherwise lists it as being optional.
345
346 `["userid-group", [ <privileges>... ], <options>...]`::
347 The callermust have any of the listed privileges on `/access/groups`. In
348 addition there are two possible checks depending on whether the
349 `groups_param` option is set:
350 +
351 * `groups_param` is set: The API call has a non-optional `groups` parameter
352 and the caller must have any of the listed privileges on all of the listed
353 groups.
354 * `groups_param` is not set: The user passed via the `userid` parameter
355 must exist and be part of a group on which the caller has any of the listed
356 privileges (via the `/access/groups/<group>` path).
357
358 `["userid-param", "self"]`::
359 The value provided for the API call's `userid` parameter must refer to the
360 user performing the action. (Usually in conjunction with `or`, to allow
361 users to perform an action on themselves even if they don't have elevated
362 privileges.)
363
364 `["userid-param", "Realm.AllocateUser"]`::
365 The user needs `Realm.AllocateUser` access to `/access/realm/<realm>`, with
366 `<realm>` refering to the realm of the user passed via the `userid`
367 parameter. Note that the user does not need to exist in order to be
368 associated with a realm, since user IDs are passed in the form of
369 `<username>@<realm>`.
370
371 `["perm-modify", <path>]`::
372 The `path` is a templated parameter (see <<templated-paths,Objects and
373 Paths>>). The user needs either the `Permissions.Modify` privilege, or,
374 depending on the path, the following privileges as a possible substitute:
375 +
376 * `/storage/...`: additionally requires 'Datastore.Allocate`
377 * `/vms/...`: additionally requires 'VM.Allocate`
378 * `/pool/...`: additionally requires 'Pool.Allocate`
379 +
380 If the path is empty, `Permission.Modify` on `/access` is required.
381
382 Command Line Tool
383 -----------------
384
385 Most users will simply use the GUI to manage users. But there is also
386 a full featured command line tool called `pveum` (short for ``**P**roxmox
387 **VE** **U**ser **M**anager''). Please note that all Proxmox VE command
388 line tools are wrappers around the API, so you can also access those
389 function through the REST API.
390
391 Here are some simple usage examples. To show help type:
392
393 [source,bash]
394 pveum
395
396 or (to show detailed help about a specific command)
397
398 [source,bash]
399 pveum help useradd
400
401 Create a new user:
402
403 [source,bash]
404 pveum useradd testuser@pve -comment "Just a test"
405
406 Set or Change the password (not all realms support that):
407
408 [source,bash]
409 pveum passwd testuser@pve
410
411 Disable a user:
412
413 [source,bash]
414 pveum usermod testuser@pve -enable 0
415
416 Create a new group:
417
418 [source,bash]
419 pveum groupadd testgroup
420
421 Create a new role:
422
423 [source,bash]
424 pveum roleadd PVE_Power-only -privs "VM.PowerMgmt VM.Console"
425
426
427 Real World Examples
428 -------------------
429
430
431 Administrator Group
432 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
433
434 One of the most wanted features was the ability to define a group of
435 users with full administrator rights (without using the root account).
436
437 Define the group:
438
439 [source,bash]
440 pveum groupadd admin -comment "System Administrators"
441
442 Then add the permission:
443
444 [source,bash]
445 pveum aclmod / -group admin -role Administrator
446
447 You can finally add users to the new 'admin' group:
448
449 [source,bash]
450 pveum usermod testuser@pve -group admin
451
452
453 Auditors
454 ~~~~~~~~
455
456 You can give read only access to users by assigning the `PVEAuditor`
457 role to users or groups.
458
459 Example1: Allow user `joe@pve` to see everything
460
461 [source,bash]
462 pveum aclmod / -user joe@pve -role PVEAuditor
463
464 Example1: Allow user `joe@pve` to see all virtual machines
465
466 [source,bash]
467 pveum aclmod /vms -user joe@pve -role PVEAuditor
468
469
470 Delegate User Management
471 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
472
473 If you want to delegate user managenent to user `joe@pve` you can do
474 that with:
475
476 [source,bash]
477 pveum aclmod /access -user joe@pve -role PVEUserAdmin
478
479 User `joe@pve` can now add and remove users, change passwords and
480 other user attributes. This is a very powerful role, and you most
481 likely want to limit that to selected realms and groups. The following
482 example allows `joe@pve` to modify users within realm `pve` if they
483 are members of group `customers`:
484
485 [source,bash]
486 pveum aclmod /access/realm/pve -user joe@pve -role PVEUserAdmin
487 pveum aclmod /access/groups/customers -user joe@pve -role PVEUserAdmin
488
489 NOTE: The user is able to add other users, but only if they are
490 members of group `customers` and within realm `pve`.
491
492
493 Pools
494 ~~~~~
495
496 An enterprise is usually structured into several smaller departments,
497 and it is common that you want to assign resources to them and
498 delegate management tasks. A pool is simply a set of virtual machines
499 and data stores. You can create pools on the GUI. After that you can
500 add resources to the pool (VMs, Storage).
501
502 You can also assign permissions to the pool. Those permissions are
503 inherited to all pool members.
504
505 Lets assume you have a software development department, so we first
506 create a group
507
508 [source,bash]
509 pveum groupadd developers -comment "Our software developers"
510
511 Now we create a new user which is a member of that group
512
513 [source,bash]
514 pveum useradd developer1@pve -group developers -password
515
516 NOTE: The -password parameter will prompt you for a password
517
518 I assume we already created a pool called ``dev-pool'' on the GUI. So we can now assign permission to that pool:
519
520 [source,bash]
521 pveum aclmod /pool/dev-pool/ -group developers -role PVEAdmin
522
523 Our software developers can now administrate the resources assigned to
524 that pool.
525
526
527 ifdef::manvolnum[]
528 include::pve-copyright.adoc[]
529 endif::manvolnum[]
530