add sysadmin docs
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1Host System Administration
2==========================
3
4{pve} is based on the famous https://www.debian.org/[Debian] Linux
5distribution. That means that you have access to the whole world of
6Debian packages, and the base system is well documented. The
7https://debian-handbook.info/download/stable/debian-handbook.pdf[Debian
8Administrator\'s Handbook] is available online, and provide a
9comprehensive introduction to the Debian operating system (see
10xref:Hertzog13[]).
11
12A standard {pve} installation uses the default repositories from
13Debian, so you get bug fixes and security updates through that
14channel. In addition, we provide our own package repository to roll
15out all {pve} related packages. This includes updates to some
16Debian packages when necessary.
17
18We also deliver a specially optimized Linux kernel, where we enable all
19required virtualization and container features. That kernel includes
20drivers for http://zfsonlinux.org/[ZFS], and several hardware drivers.
21For example, we ship Intel network card drivers to support their
22newest hardware.
23
24The following sections will concentrate on virtualization related
25topics. They either explains things which are different on {pve}, or
26tasks which are commonly used on {pve}. For other topics, please refer
27to the standard Debian documentation.
28
29System requirements
30-------------------
31
32For production servers, high quality server equipment is needed. Keep
33in mind, if you run 10 Virtual Servers on one machine and you then
34experience a hardware failure, 10 services are lost. {pve}
35supports clustering, this means that multiple {pve} installations
36can be centrally managed thanks to the included cluster functionality.
37
38{pve} can use local storage (DAS), SAN, NAS and also distributed
39storage (Ceph RBD). For details see xref:chapter-storage[chapter storage].
40
41Minimum requirements, for evaluation
42~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
43
44* CPU: 64bit (Intel EMT64 or AMD64)
45
46* RAM: 1 GB RAM
47
48* Hard drive
49
50* One NIC
51
52Recommended system requirements
53~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
54
55* CPU: 64bit (Intel EMT64 or AMD64), Multi core CPU recommended
56
57* RAM: 8 GB is good, more is better
58
59* Hardware RAID with batteries protected write cache (BBU) or flash
60 based protection
61
62* Fast hard drives, best results with 15k rpm SAS, Raid10
63
64* At least two NICĀ“s, depending on the used storage technology you need more
65
66
67Getting Help
68------------
69
70There are basically two different support channels. {pve} itself if
71fully open source, so we always encourage our users to discuss and
72share their knowledge using the http://forum.proxmox.com/[Community
73Support Forum]. The forum is fully moderated by the Proxmox support
74team. Up to now, the forum has about 25.000 members, and more than
75120.000 messages. Needless to say that such a large forum is a great
76place to get information.
77
78The second channel is the commercial support provided by
79{proxmoxGmbh}. {pve} server subscriptions can be ordered online, see
80http://shop.maurer-it.com[{pve} Shop]. For all details see
81http://www.proxmox.com/proxmox-ve/pricing[{pve} Subscription Service
82Plans].
83
84Please contact the mailto:office@proxmox.com[Proxmox sales team] for
85commercial support requests or volume discounts.
86
87Package Repositories
88--------------------
89
90All Debian based systems use
91http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_Packaging_Tool[APT] as package
92management tool. The list of repositories is defined in
93'/etc/apt/sources.list' and '.list' files found inside
94'/etc/apt/sources.d/'. Updates can be installed directly using
95'apt-get', or via the GUI.
96
97Apt 'sources.list' files lists one package repository per line, with
98the most preferred source listed first. Empty lines are ignored, and a
99'#' character anywhere on a line marks the remainder of that line as a
100comment. The information available from the configured sources is
101acquired by 'apt-get update'.
102
103.File '/etc/apt/sources.list'
104----
105deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian jessie main contrib
106
107# security updates
108deb http://security.debian.org jessie/updates main contrib
109----
110
111In addition, {pve} provides three different package repositories.
112
113{pve} Enterprise Repository
114~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
115
116This is the default, stable and recommended repository, available for
117all {pve} subscription users. It contains the most stable packages,
118and is suitable for production use. You need a valid subscription key
119to access this repository. The `pve-enterprise` repository is enabled
120by default:
121
122.File '/etc/apt/sources.list.d/pve-enterprise.list'
123----
124deb https://enterprise.proxmox.com/debian jessie pve-enterprise
125----
126
127NOTE: You can disable this repository by commenting out the above line
128using a '#' (at the start of the line). This prevents error messages
129if you do not have a subscription key. Please configure the
130`pve-no-subscription` repository in that case.
131
132As soon as updates are available, the `root@pam` user is notified via
133email about the available new packages. On the GUI, the change-log of
134each package can be viewed (if available), showing all details of the
135update. So you will never miss important security fixes.
136
137{pve} No-Subscription Repository
138~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
139
140As the name suggests, you do not need a subscription key to access
141this repository. It can be used for testing and non-production
142use. Its not recommended to run on production servers, as these
143packages are not always heavily tested and validated.
144
145We recommend to configure this repository in '/etc/apt/sources.list'.
146
147.File '/etc/apt/sources.list'
148----
149deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian jessie main contrib
150
151# PVE pve-no-subscription repository provided by proxmox.com,
152# NOT recommended for production use
153deb http://download.proxmox.com/debian jessie pve-no-subscription
154
155# security updates
156deb http://security.debian.org jessie/updates main contrib
157----
158
159
160{pve} Test Repository
161~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
162
163Finally, there is a repository called `pvetest`. This one contains the
164latest packages and is heavily used by developers to test new
165features. As usual, you can configure this using
166'/etc/apt/sources.list' by adding the following line:
167
168.sources.list entry for `pvetest`
169----
170deb http://download.proxmox.com/debian jessie pvetest
171----
172
173
174Installing {pve}
175----------------
176
177{pve} ships as a set of Debian packages, so you can simply install it
178on top of a normal Debian installation. After configuring the
179repositories, you need to run:
180
181[source,bash]
182----
183apt-get update
184apt-get install proxmox-ve
185----
186
187While this looks easy, it presumes that you have correctly installed
188the base system, and you know how you want to configure and use the
189local storage. Network configuration is also completely up to you.
190
191In general, this is not trivial, especially when you use LVM or
192ZFS. This is why we provide an installation CDROM for {pve}. That
193installer just ask you a few questions, then partitions the local
194disk(s), installs all required packages, and configures the system
195including a basic network setup. You can get a fully functional system
196within a few minutes, including the following:
197
198* Complete operating system (Debian Linux, 64-bit)
199* Partition the hard drive with ext4 (alternative ext3 or xfs) or ZFS
200* {pve} Kernel with LXC and KVM support
201* Complete toolset
202* Web based management interface
203
204NOTE: By default, the complete server is used and all existing data is
205removed.
206
207Further configuration is done via the Proxmox web interface. Just
208point your browser to the IP address given during installation
209(https://youripaddress:8006). Proxmox VE is tested for IE9, Firefox 10
210and higher, Google Chrome (latest).
211
212
213Network Configuration
214---------------------
215
216Basic network setup.
217
218image::images/cluster-nwdiag.svg[{pve} Cluster Network]
219
220image::images/node-nwdiag.svg[{pve} Default Network Setup]
221
222
223Local Storage
224-------------
225
226Logical Volume Manager (LVM)
227~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
228
229TODO: info abou LVM.
230
231
232ZFS on Linux
233~~~~~~~~~~~~
234
235TODO: info abou ZFS.
236
237
238Working with 'systemd'
239----------------------
240
241Journal and syslog
242~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
243
244TODO: explain persistent journal...
245
246
247
248
249
250
251