sysadmin.adoc: split into several smaller files
[pve-docs.git] / pve-installation.adoc
1 Installing {pve}
2 ----------------
4 {pve} ships as a set of Debian packages, so you can simply install it
5 on top of a normal Debian installation. After configuring the
6 repositories, you need to run:
8 [source,bash]
9 ----
10 apt-get update
11 apt-get install proxmox-ve
12 ----
14 While this looks easy, it presumes that you have correctly installed
15 the base system, and you know how you want to configure and use the
16 local storage. Network configuration is also completely up to you.
18 In general, this is not trivial, especially when you use LVM or
19 ZFS. This is why we provide an installation CD-ROM for {pve}. That
20 installer just ask you a few questions, then partitions the local
21 disk(s), installs all required packages, and configures the system
22 including a basic network setup. You can get a fully functional system
23 within a few minutes, including the following:
25 * Complete operating system (Debian Linux, 64-bit)
26 * Partition the hard drive with ext4 (alternative ext3 or xfs) or ZFS
27 * {pve} Kernel with LXC and KVM support
28 * Complete toolset
29 * Web based management interface
31 NOTE: By default, the complete server is used and all existing data is
32 removed.
34 Using the {pve} Installation CD-ROM
35 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
37 Please insert the installation CD-ROM, then boot from that
38 drive. Immediately afterwards you can choose the following menu
39 options:
41 Install Proxmox VE::
43 Start normal installation.
45 Install Proxmox VE (Debug mode)::
47 Start installation in debug mode. It opens a shell console at several
48 installation steps, so that you can debug things if something goes
49 wrong. Please press `CTRL-D` to exit those debug consoles and continue
50 installation. This option is mostly for developers and not meant for
51 general use.
53 Rescue Boot::
55 This option allows you to boot an existing installation. It searches
56 all attached hard disks, and if it finds an existing installation,
57 boots directly into that disk using the existing Linux kernel. This
58 can be useful if there are problems with the boot block (grub), or the
59 BIOS is unable to read the boot block from the disk.
61 Test Memory::
63 Runs 'memtest86+'. This is useful to check if your memory if
64 functional and error free.
66 You normally select *Install Proxmox VE* to start the installation.
67 After that you get prompted to select the target hard disk(s). The
68 `Options` button aside lets you select the target file system, and
69 defaults to `ext4`. The installer uses LVM if you select 'ext3',
70 'ext4' or 'xfs' as file system, and offers additional option to
71 restrict LVM space (see <<advanced_lvm_options,below>>)
73 If you have more than one disk, you can also use ZFS as file system.
74 ZFS supports several software RAID levels, so this is specially useful
75 if you do not have a hardware RAID controller. The `Options` button
76 lets you select the ZFS RAID level, and you can choose disks there.
78 The next pages just asks for basic configuration options like time
79 zone and keyboard layout. You also need to specify your email address
80 and select a superuser password.
82 The last step is the network configuration. Please note that you can
83 use either IPv4 or IPv6 here, but not both. If you want to configure a
84 dual stack node, you can easily do that after installation.
86 If you press `Next` now, installation starts to format disks, and
87 copies packages to the target. Please wait until that is finished,
88 then reboot the server.
90 Further configuration is done via the Proxmox web interface. Just
91 point your browser to the IP address given during installation
92 (https://youripaddress:8006). {pve} is tested for IE9, Firefox 10
93 and higher, and Google Chrome.
96 [[advanced_lvm_options]]
97 Advanced LVM configuration options
98 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
100 The installer creates a Volume Group (VG) called `pve`, and additional
101 Logical Volumes (LVs) called `root`, `data` and `swap`. The size of
102 those volumes can be controlled with:
104 `hdsize`::
106 Defines the total HD size to be used. This way you can save free
107 space on the HD for further partitioning (i.e. for an additional PV
108 and VG on the same hard disk that can be used for LVM storage).
110 `swapsize`::
112 To define the size of the `swap` volume. Default is the same size as
113 installed RAM, with 4GB minimum and `hdsize/8` as maximum.
115 `maxroot`::
117 The `root` volume size. The `root` volume stores the whole operation
118 system.
120 `maxvz`::
122 Define the size of the `data` volume, which is mounted at
123 '/var/lib/vz'.
125 `minfree`::
127 To define the amount of free space left in LVM volume group `pve`.
128 16GB is the default if storage available > 128GB, `hdsize/8` otherwise.
129 +
130 NOTE: LVM requires free space in the VG for snapshot creation (not
131 required for lvmthin snapshots).
134 ZFS Performance Tips
135 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
137 ZFS uses a lot of memory, so it is best to add additional 8-16GB RAM
138 if you want to use ZFS.
140 ZFS also provides the feature to use a fast SSD drive as write cache. The
141 write cache is called the ZFS Intent Log (ZIL). You can add that after
142 installation using the following command:
144 zpool add <pool-name> log </dev/path_to_fast_ssd>